Proteins are essential players of life activities. Intracellular protein levels directly affect cellular functions and cell fate. Upon cell division, the proteins in the mother cell are inherited by the daughters. However, what factors and by how much they affect this epigenetic inheritance of protein abundance remains unclear. Using both computational and experimental approaches, we systematically investigated this problem. We derived an analytical expression for the dependence of protein inheritance on various factors and showed that it agreed with numerical simulations of protein production and experimental results. Our work provides a framework for quantitative studies of protein inheritance and for the potential application of protein memory manipulation.